An aggressive strategy has been used to communicate the results of these efforts to potential local users in the public and private sectors based on an understanding of what motivates them to take the needed action. dissemination and utilization of research results. Thomas E. Drabek (John Evans Professor Emeritus, University of Denver) has conducted disaster research studies during the past four decades. Some social science researchers have actively pursued participatory action research to help reduce disaster vulnerability. Such studies could provide a basis for overcoming barriers to more effective dissemination and application of extant knowledge. classify knowledge dissemination techniques. The higher the threat condition, the greater is the assumed risk of a terrorist attack. Appreciate the value of developing of a comprehensive dissemination strategy as an integral part of a research project. This approach is disseminated to communities through the NWS Storm Ready Program. NHRAIC is funded by grants from NSF and annual contributions from other agencies, including FEMA in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), USGS, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), U.S. Forest Service, National Weather Service, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The above observations are consistent with comments made by practitioners at the committee’s two workshops and with findings from studies outside the hazards and disaster field. A study by Lambright (1984) considered the policy role played by the Southern California Earthquake Preparedness Project (SCEPP), a regional organization that emerged with government support to play a leadership role in earthquake preparedness in California. 2003. Reflecting his stated respect for those who do “the real work of emergency management,” he has maintained membership in the core organizations of both his discipline and the emergency management profession. The literature on dissemination and knowledge utilization spans a number of disciplines, including the fields of rehabilitation, education, sociology, psychology, and marketing. bank cleanups became commonplace. For example, attitude towards information systems and technical support are critical factors that may be supported with information and communication technology tools for facilitating knowledge dissemination, reducing uncertainty about the electronic health records. NHRAIC maintains two listservs: Disaster Research, which provides a forum for research-related queries and discussions, and Disaster Grads, which is tailored to the needs of graduate students and young professionals. Part of the synthesizing role of professional associations involves the development of consensus among peers about how to tackle particular problems, and this consensus may result from insights derived from a combination of both research and experience. At least four of the courses developed by the higher education program are social science related: Social Vulnerability Approach to Disasters, Public Administration and Emergency Management. actively seek knowledge from the research community. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Furthermore, as illustrated in Table 8.1, there are now numerous brokers of social science hazards and disaster information, including individual researchers as well as outreach and dissemination programs in government, academia and civil society. Consider how your dissemination might be perceived by different groups. Not many practitioners have the opportunity and resources to attend conferences, even those who have research dissemination as a goal. The most extensive study of the utilization of research on natural hazards and disasters was conducted by Robert Yin and his colleagues in the 1980s (Yin and Moore, 1985; Yin and Andranovitch, 1987). Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. Chances for successful adoption of knowledge are much greater if influential potential adopters (opinion leaders) and organizational or community leaders express enthusiasm for its adoption. The floodplain management and policy issues that come under its purview include flood mitigation, preparedness, warning, and recovery, with particular attention given to the National Flood Insurance Program administered by FEMA (www.floods.org). While many have speculated on the answer to this question, it will take careful investigation to determine the root causes of why the country was not prepared for this event. Report No. Lavis J, Davies H, Oxman A, Denis SL, Golden-Biddle, Ferlie E. Towards reviews that inform health care management and policy-making. In the hazards and disaster field, another major issue involves the saliency of emergency preparedness and disaster response to state and local political officials. While much anecdotal information, including that on the 18 dissemination activities discussed above, conforms to general theories about successful knowledge dissemination and utilization, there is a clear need to proceed with studies that use rigorous research methods to determine where and how improvements should be made. There is a lack of formal means for bringing researchers and practitioners together. In the fall of 2002, the governor of New York hired the consulting firm James Lee Witt Associates to review the status of emergency planning at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant, located in Westchester County. A frequently cited example of the success of this program comes from the experience of Van Wert County, Ohio, which experienced an outbreak of tornadoes in 2002. Another research utilization investigation carried out by Yin and his colleagues involved case studies of nine applied projects in the hazards and disaster field dealing with earth science, engineering, and social science topics (Yin and Moore, 1985). In fact, such service can be an impediment to obtaining academic tenure. While such interactions are common, they are rarely documented. In other cases, the exchange was the result of an active and communicative principal investigator. Knowledge dissemination is a crucial part of knowledge management because it ensures knowledge is available to those who need it. the dissemination source—that is, the agency, organization, or individual responsible for creating the new knowledge or product, and/or for conducting dissemination activities; the content or message that is disseminated—that is, the new knowledge or product itself, as … Social scientists have worked with the private sector to improve their implementation of regulatory requirements. This research has been used in predicting evacuation times and developing evacuation plans for coastal counties (see http://hrrc.tamu.edu/). This experience was supplemented by information provided directly by some of the entities and. One of the most important challenges is the lack of systematic and recent research on this topic, resulting in an undue reliance on anecdotally derived insights. Users of the site can search the Hazlit database, find links to other information sources, and gain access to online versions of the Observer, quick-response reports, and other center publications, as well as programs and session summaries from past workshops, a directory of academic centers and government programs focusing on hazards and disasters, and other relevant information. 5.2 Importance of Information Dissemination learning, the emphasis is on refining knowledge that already exists, upgrading existing level of skills, and nurturing and shaping innate potential and talent of individuals and groups in a society. Employees caught between the directives of their bosses and fears and desires of family members during numerous large-scale evacuations revealed portraits that required action. The knowledge base generated by the social sciences on hazards and disasters has grown significantly, as discussed in previous chapters of this report. TABLE 8.1 Examples of Knowledge Diffusion Efforts, Outside consultation on the change process, University of South Carolina Hazards Research Lab, User-oriented transformation of information, University of Colorado Natural Hazards Center, Individual and organizational championship. The Association of State Floodplain Managers (ASFPM), a member organization representing flood hazards specialists in government, academe, and the private sector, is heavily engaged in the transfer of knowledge to potential users and has the reputation of doing it successfully. Detention basins, which are now local amenities and instruments of flood management, were built and old ones cleaned up. Organizations are crucial in planning for, managing, responding to, and recovering from emergencies. High quality example sentences with “dissemination knowledge” in context from reliable sources - Ludwig is the linguistic search engine that helps you to write better in English There is a lack of meaningful interaction between researchers and practitioners to define research agendas and to interact during the research design and implementation phases. This facilitated their widespread circulation and frequent use in educational workshops. New possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical form, but also and increasingly through the Open Access paradigm via the Internet have to be supported. To become “storm ready,” a community or county must. Boston: Harvard Business School Press; 2002. Researchers worked with the state attorney general’s office in connection with legislation on chemical hazard mitigation requirements for fixed facilities. The Hazards Research Lab (HRL) at the University of South Carolina (USC) was established in 1995. Greenhalgh T, Robert G, Macfarlane F, Bate P, Kyriakidou O. Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations: Systematic Review and Recommendations. This requires a “soup-to-nuts” research strategy. Institutional barriers prevent the dissemination of knowledge from researchers to practitioners because academia does not reward. 5 ed. A well-developed strategic plan for how knowledge will be adopted in a new setting—including attention to implementation problems and how they will be addressed—is essential to meeting the challenges of adoption and sustained change. Two such examples are briefly discussed below as a contrast to the more successful examples noted earlier. Even government investigators have indirectly criticized the design and implementation of the scale. This resource, like the other FEMA-sponsored Instructor Guides, was made available free of charge through the Internet. As other examples have shown, federal agencies sometimes actively engage social science researchers when developing disaster reduction programs. Brochures are available in English and 14 other languages. Another comparison that Table 8.1 suggests involves determining if some approaches work better than others with different users, such as land-use planners, emergency managers, and public health officials. Citizen advocates, including Ann Patton, played a critical role in pressing for tough flood mitigation actions. While Drabek frequently presented his research conclusions at both professional sociological and social science association meetings, he also made presentations at national, regional and state emergency management conferences. Most prior research, largely carried out in the 1980s, was qualitative in nature, and typically employed a case-study approach. View our suggested citation for this chapter. EMI has regularly engaged social science hazards and disaster researchers to help develop curricula and serve on its advisory board. 2 For this reason, dissemination is a core responsibility of any organization … The Homeland Security Advisory System (HSAS) was designed to provide a comprehensive means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to federal, state, and local authorities and to the American. As noted, Yin and his colleagues (Yin and Moore, 1985; Yin and Andranovitch, 1987) carried out their important work on research utilization in the 1980s. Thus, much of the research described in Chapters 3 and 4, as well as elsewhere in this report, has been undertaken to advance social science theory and to further the reduction of disaster losses and social disruption, enhance emergency response, and speed disaster recovery. Knowledge broker organisations perform strategic functions which generate knowledge and support it to be applied in decision making and practice (OECD). Six general principles or strategies have emerged from prior research that accounts for successful knowledge utilization (Backer et al., 1995). The concept of ICS was developed more than 30 years ago in the. In developing course material for this program, Drabek has relied not only upon his own disaster research results but also on those produced by a host of other NEHRP-funded researchers in the social sciences. The few case studies that were conducted many years ago may have limited application today; thus, much work needs to be done. The center also sponsors quick-response research following disasters, conducts research projects, and engages in activities aimed at enhancing the hazards research workforce. The article suggested that: flooding of New Orleans to depths as great as 20 feet would occur; that up to 80 percent of the structures in flooded areas would be severely damaged; there is a need to develop a plan to evacuate the estimated 120,000 residents without the means of evacuation; early evacuation of the city is needed due to limited routes of egress; all modes of transportation should be utilized in an evacuation; there is a lack of mass care centers to house those not evacuating; problems will occur with search and rescue due to hazardous conditions; it would take an estimated 10 days to complete search and rescue; there will be a need to house hundreds of thousands of displaced citizens unable to return to their residences; and. Likewise, a training course on “Command and Control” reflects the extensive research on organizational behavior in disasters carried out by the Disaster Research Center. Some of this work may not be as relevant today as it once was, especially given some of the societal changes discussed in Chapter 2. More advice on dissemination. One of the first steps in becoming compliant with NIMS requires states and local governments to institutionalize the use of ICS (as taught by DHS) across the entire response system. Key IKT success factors derived from the literature review for this chapter include: Lost in Knowledge Translation: Time for a Map? 2006. Faculty affiliated with the center also carry out their own research projects, funded by agencies such as NSF and FEMA, which provide training and educational opportunities for graduate students and postdoctoral scholars. end of grant KT) or throughout the research process, if appropriate (i.e. Patricia Carcaise-Edinboro, PhD. Birdsell J, Matthias S. Networks and their Role in Enhancing Research Impact in Alberta. White and one of his former students, Eve Gruntfest, have worked over the years with city officials to develop a comprehensive floodplain management plan for Boulder Creek and its tributaries. Recommendation 8.3: Cross-cultural research utilization studies should be pursued by social scientists. NHRAIC approves small grant proposals for quick-response research on an annual basis. the likelihood of success, costs, possible side effects, and so forth. But the examples cited above indicate clearly that research utilization does take place under certain conditions, particularly when researchers and potential users interact in meaningful ways. Reardon R, Lavis J, Gibson J. On a more practical note, the broader research literature enables some generalizations about the circumstances underlying successful knowledge utilization. As discussed in Chapter 6, disasters impact developed and developing countries alike. They believe that the federal-to-community dissemination process is flawed and that current federal dissemination practices favor large communities. Lambright analyzed SCEPP’s origins and development, and drew conclusions about the program’s success in stimulating preparedness measures, including those that were science based, for a predicted or unpredicted earthquake. Table 8.1 suggests a number of areas in which research on knowledge utilization might address important issues from a comparative standpoint. Planning and conceptual foresight. He recruited Chuck Gee, a former classmate from the University of Denver who had long held the post of dean at the School of Travel Industry Management (STIM), University of Hawaii at Manoa. Two core missions of the center relate directly to knowledge transfer: To disseminate findings to the research community and to practitioners so they can use this knowledge to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Boulder has a flood problem similar to the Big Thompson Canyon below Estes Park, Colorado. The partnership between the academic and practitioner communities is realized in all the activities of the HRL. In partnership with the South Carolina Emergency Management Division, the HRL provided the methodology and baseline information for conducting hazard vulnerability assessments under the Disaster Mitigation Act (DMA. Explain the relationship between knowledge acquisition, knowledge processing, knowledge generation, knowledge dissemination, and wisdom. What is knowledge dissemination? Dissemination of evidence based practice results involves targeted circulation of information and interventions to a particular public health or clinical practice audience (Choi, 2005). To them, dissemination is a subset of knowledge translation. Practitioners attending the committee’s workshops expressed similar perspectives on the dissemination problem, attributing the lack of use of research knowledge to factors such as the following: Information is not easy to digest and understand. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions 2006;26(1):37-45. risks to life and property from earthquakes. Several states actively engage social scientists while developing emergency planning strategies. Toward a communicative perspective of collaborating in research: the case of the researcher-decision-maker partnership. Researchers have understood the consequences of a major hurricane hitting New Orleans, not just in a broad sense, but in a fairly detailed understanding of planning and response needs. More specifically, much of the research conducted on hazards and disasters is geared toward providing a more informed basis for actions by policy makers and practitioners. The Research-Media Partnership. Finally, future research utilization studies should focus not only on the ways information is introduced to potential users, (i.e., process issues), but also on the actual results of such efforts. the user, or intended user, of the information or product to be disseminated (Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, 1996:12). This system provides warnings in the form of a set of graduated “threat conditions” that increase as the risk of the threat advances. It facilitated the rapid dissemination of research findings. The importance of social interaction between researchers and potential users came through strongly in these case studies in explaining the extent of research utilization. FEMA produces some planning guides that are knowledge based and rooted in social science research, such as its planning guidance for the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP). It would also be useful to make comparisons across hazard types to determine the degree to which research dissemination and application efforts need to be tailored to particular natural, technological, and willful threats. The Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) serves the nine counties in the San Francisco Bay area through a variety of preparedness and mitigation projects focusing on earthquakes and a host of other environmental risks. The goal of Entergy was to develop the best emergency plans and response in the nuclear industry. The expertise of committee members reflected both academic and practitioner experiences, and all members had high name recognition within their respective reference groups. Residents were surveyed about their knowledge of the 100-year floodplain, flood risk awareness, preferred warning methods, perceived response, impacts of false alarms, and flood and weather information (Gruntfest et al., 2002). The Government Accountability Office (GAO) (2004) notes that the development of the scale largely fails to reflect the expertise derived from risk communications and disaster warning research. The theory and practice of knowledge brokering in Canada's health system. Aims and objectives. Hazlit, the library database, can be searched on the Web, and the library staff is also available to conduct customized searches. The ultimate response of Tulsa’s local authorities was to create a flood mitigation regulatory climate that encouraged private participation. Resources Think about the expertise you have in your team and whether you need additional help with dissemination. Not a MyNAP member yet? Health Technology Assessment 2004;8(6). In one of the articles, sociologist Shirley Laska (2004) discussed the impact of a major hurricane striking New Orleans. Nursing Leadership 2003;16(1):61-74. SCEPP was provided with necessary resources, had allies that championed its cause, and met with little external resistance. One of the innovative features of the program is that Tulsa charged a $4 per month drainage fee, collected with water bills, to support land management and maintenance of the stormwater drainage system for land acquired by the city. For example, while Thomas Drabek’s efforts are placed in only one cell, they actually spill over into several cells in the matrix. Practitioners were asked if they used research findings and, if so, how this came about. Some researchers have distinguished between a “push” process wherein providers of knowledge actively seek utilization versus a “pull” process wherein users. The Milbank Quarterly 2007;85(4):729-68. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. While the specific content of his presentations varied so as to reflect his work at particular points in time, Drabek consistently carried a singular message: Emergency management can be practiced best if it reflects actions rooted in scientific knowledge rather than myth. How to use disseminate in a sentence. Individual and organizational championship. Example of good dissemination plans in grant applications. Ann Patton worked to convince people to understand that “everyone contributes to flooding in Tulsa, so everyone should pay something to prevent it.” To do so, she brought in two eminent social scientists to convince the city’s leadership to use nonstructural measures to reduce flood losses (Meo et al., 2004). The general point is worth repeating: Little systematic research on information dissemination and implementation has been conducted in the hazards and disaster field. FEMA’s mitigation planning guide series also contains good examples of research-based guidance. 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